Cuma is the oldest Greek colony of the West. In the Greek controlled a fairly extensive territory, including Cuma Lake Lucrino, Averno, Miseno and Fusaro, Bay, part of the territory of Licola.
Cuma in 421 BC it was conquered by the people, coming from the hinterland of Campania that at the end of the fifth century. BC went on the coast in search of new lands.
Conquered in 334 BC by Rome in 251 BC obtained the Statute municipium. Devoid of political prestige and economic power that had characterized in the Greek era, Cuma represented for the Romans “city learned”, heir and keeper of traditions and of cultural and religious heritage.
Of the original settlement, are still visible: the Acropolis, religious center of the city, with the remains of the ancient walls, the Temple of Apollo and the “Temple of Jupiter“; and the lower town with the hole and its imposing buildings (Forum baths, Capitolium, “temple with portico”, “the farm of the giant”).
The Temple of Jupiter is the largest shrine of the Acropolis, unearthed between 1924 and 1932, has long been attributed without reasonable grounds to Jupiter, but likely was consecrated to Demetra, ancient goddess of Cumans in town particularly venerated.
The construction of the shrine is dated in the late sixth century. BC; has been the subject of numerous interventions and transformations over time, not precisely verifiable, but which were always the original East-West orientation. The remains visible today are Roman and Byzantine age-related, when the temple was converted into a basilica dedicated to St. Max martyr.
Via Monte di Cuma, 3, Bacoli (NA)